Religious Studies 133: Introduction to Religion

Indiana University-Purdue University

 


Instructor: Dr. Kelly Hayes

E-mail: keehayes@iupui.edu            

Office Telephone: 278-2639

Office Hours: M: 3:30–4:30 p.m. & by appt

(Cavanaugh Hall 335)

 


Semester: Fall 2013

Time: M, W 12:00 a.m. – 1:15 a.m.

Location: Cavanaugh Hall 241

 


 One of the responsibilities of the academic study of religion is to make the strange familiar and the familiar strange.” –David Chidester

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

It is often said that religion touches on humanity’s deepest fears and answers our most basic questions. Religion is a factor in some of our most intractable conflicts, such as the events of 9-11 and contemporary political struggles about same-sex marriage or abortion. More than ever, a well-rounded liberal arts education must include the study of religion and its role in human history. However, studying religion academically is not the same thing as being religious. In religious studies, we investigate religion as a human phenomenon: our starting point is not "God," but how humans have imagined, described, worshipped and made claims about the superhuman in different times and places. This means that we will take a comparative approach to religions, looking for similarities and differences, without privileging any particular religion.  We will develop skills to understand, compare and critically analyze religions. You will leave this class with a better understanding of how humans have shaped religions and how religions have shaped human history and the contemporary world.

 

In the first third of the course, we will survey a variety of ancient and contemporary religions practiced in different parts of the world, including Native American and African traditions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Drawing on this foundation, in the second third of the course we will employ a broader, conceptual approach to investigate religion as a cross-cultural human phenomenon, comparing and contrasting seven dimensions of religion: experience, myth, ritual, community, doctrine, ethics and aesthetics. In the last third of the course, the case study of a contemporary religious movement will allow us to bring these approaches together.

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

1.     To introduce the student to the academic study of religion.

2.     To foster understanding of the role and significance of religion in human history.

3.     To encourage critical thinking about religion and its impact in the world today.

4.     To introduce the dimensions of religion, and relate them to one another and to the broader social and historical contexts of particular religions.

5.     To develop analytical and interpretive skills appropriate to the humanities, including the ability to write effectively.

 

All Religious Studies courses are taught in accordance with IUPUI’s Principles of Undergraduate Learning <http://www.iport.iupui.edu/selfstudy/tl/PULs>, with particular emphasis on PUL #5, “Understanding Society and Culture.”

 

REQUIRED TEXTS

The following books are available at the IUPUI campus bookstore and are on 2-hr. reserves at the circulation desk of the library:

1. Denise and John Carmody, The Range of Religion

2. Roy Robson, THINK World Religions 2013  

3. Dennis Covington, Salvation on Sand Mountain: Snake Handling and Redemption in Southern Appalachia

 

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READINGS

Additional readings for this course are available in PDF format in the folder titled “Additional Readings” located in the Resources area of Oncourse CL, or directly from: http://www.iupui.edu/~womrel/REL 133/REL 133 class readings/

It is highly recommended that you access these readings from campus and either print them out immediately or download them to a disk. These readings are indicated in the class schedule by the abbreviation (ON). They are listed alphabetically by the first words of the title (excluding “The”).

 

COURSE REQUIREMENTS

This course assumes that learning is an on-going process, occurring both in and outside of the classroom. This process is enhanced by your careful preparation and critical reflection upon the assigned readings outside of the classroom—something that requires an active engagement with the materials. For these reasons, close reading of the assigned materials, attendance and active participation in class discussion are essential. In general, you will be expected to think about the topics presented, not to reproduce information (although some mastery of factual material is necessary). I will routinely call on you to contribute to class discussions, therefore you should come to class prepared to discuss the readings.

 

Class time will be structured as a forum for lecture and discussion, with lecture predominating in the first part of the course as we establish a common framework for our studies. Lectures will supplement, extend or provide context for the readings, they will not repeat them. Course materials will also be presented in the form of films, slides and guest speakers.

 

1.     Readings. Assigned readings should be completed BEFORE the class meeting for which they are assigned. Careful, critical reading of the assigned texts is essential for your understanding of the lectures and for productive class discussion.

2.     Reading Quizzes (10%). There will be three quizzes given in Unit I covering the assigned readings. Students must be present to take the quiz and no make-ups will be given. Two quizzes will count towards the final grade; the quiz with the lowest score will be dropped.

3.     Reading Guides (25%). During Units II and III, in lieu of reading quizzes students will complete a set of reading guide questions prior to each class period. These must be typed and will be collected at random. Reading guides submitted later than one class period after the due date will not be accepted.

4.     Field Report (20%). Attendance at a religious service of a tradition other than your own, and a written report of your observations. More information about this assignment will be given in class.

5.     Current Events Presentation (5%). Each student is required to make a 5-minute oral presentation on a current events topic concerning religion from approved news source. More information about this assignment will be given in class. Instructions are posted under the Resources tab.

6.     Midterm Examination (20%). An in-class exam drawn from a set of questions covering the course materials. A study-guide will be made available beforehand.

7.     Final Examination (20%). A comprehensive, in-class exam. A study-guide will be made available beforehand.

 

GRADING

There are 1,000 total points that can be earned in this class. They are distributed as follows:

Reading Quizzes                                 10% of course grade   (100 points)

Reading Guides                                   25% of course grade    (250 points)

Field Report                                        20% of course grade               (200 points)

Current Events Presentation               5% of course grade                 (50 points)

Mid-term exam                                   20% of course grade                (200 points)

Final Exam                                          20% of course grade   (200 points)

 

The following percentile scale will be used to determine grades: 90-100 = A; 80-89 = B; 70-79 = C; 60-69 = D; 59 and under = F. The top and bottom two numbers within each grade bracket correspond to plus and minus grade designations, respectively (e.g., 88-89 = B+, 80-81 = B-).

 

The following information will help you better understand the criteria for graded material:

A= exceptionally thought-provoking, original, creative in both content and manner of presentation, and a skillful use of concepts and/or materials which are fully supported.

 

B= presents a solid understanding of the subject matter and an ability to handle the issues and materials encountered in the subject with only minor errors. 

 

C= demonstrates an adequate understanding of the subject matter with central ideas present, but too general, repetitious and not clearly supported or integrated with evidence and details.

 

D= a minimally acceptable performance with a confusing central idea and lacking details.  Parts of the assignment are missing and/or incomplete.

 

F= shows lack of effort and minimal comprehension of material with major mechanical errors, no thesis, and misuse of key concepts.

 

EXTRA CREDIT

In addition to the extra credit possibilities listed on the schedule, others will be announced periodically in class. For more information about extra credit in this course, refer to the document entitled “Guidelines for Extra Credit” (on the Resources page of Oncourse).

 

ONCOURSE

Students must have access to Oncourse and should regularly check our class site for announcements, extra credit options, assignments and other information, particularly if you are absent from class.

 

ASSIGNMENTS

Failure to take either of the exams or to complete the field report will mean an F mark for the course. All written work must be typed; assignments longer than one page should be numbered and stapled, with your name on each page. You are expected to save copies of your work. Assignments must be submitted on or before the due dates, exceptions only in extraordinary circumstances and with written documentation and/or my prior approval. Assignments—including papers—later than one class period from the due date will not be accepted unless prior arrangements have been made. Your absence from class at these times does not in itself grant you an automatic extension.

 

ATTENDANCE

Attendance is mandatory, not optional, and will affect your final course grade. I neither want nor need to know the reason for your absence from class, but be warned that it will have the following consequences: 1) any late homework will receive half-credit and will not be accepted if later than one class period from the due date (see above); and, 2) more than four absences over the course of the semester will lower your final course grade by a half (1/2) letter grade for each subsequent absence (e.g. from a B to a B- and so forth). Exceptions will be made only in cases of documented hospitalization or grave necessity (such as the death of a close relative). In all cases, attendance should take priority over assignments—do not skip class because you have not completed an assignment!

 

PLAGIARISM AND THE WEB

Plagiarism is the use of the work of others without properly crediting the actual source of the ideas, words, sentences, paragraphs, entire articles, music or pictures. Plagiarism is a form of stealing and is a serious offense. Avoid the temptation to plagiarize: DO NOT cut and paste sentences or phrases from the internet or other sources into your written work. Do not copy sentences verbatim from the readings into your homework, instead, use your own words. Whenever you take words from, or whenever your ideas or expressions have been shaped by, another author or source (other than our class), you must reference these borrowings and contributions using the proper citation format.

 

I may use the anti-plagiarism software “Turnitin.com” to guarantee that the work you submit is all your own. A finding of plagiarism will result in a failing grade for that assignment and notification of the appropriate authorities (see Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities and Conduct: http://dsa.indiana.edu/Code/index1.html).

 

CLASS ASSISTANCE

If you need assistance, guidance, some reassuring words, or would just like to chat about something pertaining to the course, drop by during office hours or write me an email.  Please note that you can expect a response to any e-correspondence within twenty-four hours or less during regular business hours; I do not check e-mail after 5 pm or on weekends.

 

For students who require particular types of accommodation and assistance, please contact IUPUI’s Adaptive Education Services (AES).  You can learn more about AES by visiting its home page, http://life.iupui.edu/aes/index.asp.  You can contact AES by phone, 274-3241 (voice) or 278-2050 (TDD/TTY), and e-mail, aes@iupui.edu.

 

 

 

 

 


THE SEVEN DIMENSIONS OF RELIGION

 

EXPERIENTIAL: That dimension of religion wherein the superhuman realm is perceived as being experienced directly (in an instant or cumulatively over time), and which evokes an emotional response or feeling (of awe, dread, fascination, etc).  In order to be understood, described or communicated, such an experience must be interpreted. One can interpret and preserve the experience using original imagery or by adapting imaginative concepts and language drawn from culture, folklore, legends, religious stories, or sacred texts.

Examples: The revelation to Muhammad, prophecy, satori, sensing an answer to a prayer, speaking in tongues.

 

RITUAL: This dimension includes the highly symbolic activities of prayer, worship and other patterned behaviors designed to re-enact, commemorate, or celebrate an important event in a tradition’s sacred history; to bring about communication with the superhuman realm; and/or to foster experience. Ritual is a “scripted performance” consisting of symbolic gestures and words that produce a felt participation in a tradition’s sacred beliefs or traditions and that affirms or transforms people’s identities, roles and communal bonds.

Examples: the hajj, baptism, Eucharist, formal prayer, Sabbath observances, rites of passage (Bar or Bat Mitzvah, confirmation, vision quest), holiday celebrations (Passover, Easter, Diwali, etc)

 

SOCIAL/COMMUNAL: This dimension refers to the forms in which religious teaching, authority, and common living are organized and transmitted. A body of people linked by common beliefs and practices or the observance of prohibitions that mark them as different from other communities or the outside world.

Examples: church, synagogue, Muslim umma, Buddhist sangha, temple, mosque, cult, sect

 

DOCTRINAL: This dimension contains explanatory statements about the beliefs of a religion. Religious beliefs are usually embedded in stories (preserved in oral tradition, text or Scripture, folklore, myth, etc) and doctrine is the attempt to interpret these stories and to explain logically and consistently the beliefs or ideas embedded in them. Doctrine is thus a product of a philosophical process that is applied to these stories in order to clarify or harmonize contradictory beliefs and to give them intellectual vigor using human reason. Doctrines provide religion with intellectual systems of guidance for the purposes of practice, instruction, discipline, interpretation, propaganda, proselytization and polemic. They are organized systematically in some traditions but not in others. Theology is the study of doctrine.

Examples: creeds, Papal bulls, theologies, rules for interpreting sacred texts, systematic teachings about sin, sexuality, salvation, the afterlife, etc.

 

ETHICAL: A religion’s more or less systematically organized set of beliefs and behavioral guidelines about right and wrong. Ethics prescribes moral ideals for personal and social life and prohibits activities contrary to those ideals.

Examples: the Ten Commandments, the Sha’ria, Sermon on the Mount, the Golden Rule, the Eightfold Path

 

MYTHOLOGICAL: Narratives or stories about beginnings and endings, gods, culture heroes, special times, places, historical events. Myths establish paradigmatic models for the universe and for the relationships of humans to each other and to the superhuman realm. They are past-oriented narratives told for the purposes of the present: to explain or legislate a certain order to the universe, to explain or legislate certain relationships (such as that between men and women), and to explain or legislate certain values (“be fruitful and multiply,” honoring parents, stewarding animals).  Cosmogonic myths are stories about creation.

Examples: Genesis 1-3, stories about Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, the Buddha, spirits or ancestors

 

AESTHETIC: This dimension includes all of the ways that religion seeks to engage the senses and communicate its beliefs and values through material objects (stained glass windows, ritual vestments, etc.), the organization of space (architecture, altars), or other sensory media (incense, special foods).

Examples: religious art, sculpture, statuary, music and dancing, ritual vestments and objects, ceremonial food and drink.

 

INTERRELATIONSHIPS

Beliefs                          Practices

 

doctrines                      experience

ethics               aesthetics         institutions

myths                          rituals

 

 


COURSE SCHEDULE

 

AUG    19        INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE

 

AUG    21        THE ACADEMIC STUDY OF RELIGION

READ: THINK World Religions, chapters 1 and 2

 

UNIT I.              SURVEY OF WORLD RELIGIONS                                                       

 

AUG    26        NATIVE AMERICAN RELIGIONS

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 15

 

AUG    28        AFRICAN RELIGIONS

READ: “African Religions” (ON)

Quiz 1

 

SEP     2          NO CLASS (Labor Day holiday)

 

SEP     4          HINDUISM

READ: THINK World Religions, chapters 3 and 4

 

SEP     9          BUDDHISM

READ: THINK World Religions, chapters 5 and 6

Quiz 2

 

SEP     11        JUDAISM I

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 9

 

SEP     16        JUDAISM II          

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 10

Guest Speaker: Rabbi Aaron Spiegel

 

SEP     18        CHRISTIANITY I

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 11 AND the following two website readings:

1) "What can we really know about Jesus" http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/jesus/reallyknow.html (Read all 5 pages)

2) "The Diversity of Early Christianity" http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/first/diversity.html (Read all 7 pages)

Film #1 From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians (vol. II)

 

SEP     23        CHRISTIANITY II

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 12

Quiz 3

                                                                                                 

SEP     25        ISLAM I    

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 13

Film #2: Islam: Empire of Faith (vol. I)                                                                 

 

SEP     30        ISLAM II

READ: THINK World Religions, chapter 14

                    

OCT   2          MIDTERM EXAM

                                                                                                                                   

                                                           

UNIT II.            COMPARING DIMENSIONS OF RELIGION: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

 

SOCIAL DIMENSION: Context and Community

 

OCT   7          “Jihads, Jeremiads, and the Enemy Within and “Appendix D” (ON)

(bring both readings to class for discussion)

 

OCT   9           The Danish Cartoon Affair” (ON)

 

OCT   14        NO CLASS (Fall Break)

 

 

EXPERIENTIAL DIMENSION: Embodiment and Experience

                                                                      

OCT   16        Zen Buddhism” (ON) AND Range of Religions, 11-26 (Philip Kapleau)    

 

OCT   21        Range of Religions, 27-43 (Julian of Norwich) AND Range of Religions, 44-58 (Michael Harner)

  

 

MYTHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS: Cosmogony and Creation

 

OCT   23        Range of Religions, 63-76 (Marcel Griaule: Dogon Creation story)

 

OCT   28        Genesis 1-3 (NRSV Bible) (ON)

(bring reading to class for discussion)

Extra Credit Option: “What Was the Androgyne?” www.judaism.about.com/od/jewishculture/a/What-Was-The-Androgyne-Biblical-Creation-Story.htm

 

 


DOCTRINAL DIMENSION: Authority and Interpretation

 

OCT   30        The Oneida Community” (http://www.nyhistory.com/central/oneida.htm) AND “Oneida Community” (ON)

(bring both readings to class for discussion)

 

NOV   4          When Christ is a Woman” (ON) AND “God Dual, Mother-Father” (ON)

(bring both readings to class for discussion)

 

 

RITUAL DIMENSION: Practice and Performance

 

NOV   6          God’s Judgment on White America” (ON) AND Range of Religions, 145-163 (Malcolm X: Mecca)

Film #3: The Haj

Extra Credit Option: “Pilgrims at Heart” (ON)

           

NOV   11        Range of Religions, 347-360 (Starhawk) AND “Wicca and the New Age” section of chapter 16 in THINK World Religions

DUE: FIELD REPORT

 

 

ETHICAL DIMENSION: Virtues and Values

    

NOV   13        Same-Sex Marriage: Pro and Con

Read all of the following in the order they are listed below (see Oncourse for links):

1. “Statement on Same-Sex Marriage” and “What You Do; 

2. “Creation and Natural Law” and “Discerning the Will of God;

3. “Homosexuality, The Bible and Us-A Jewish Perspective” and “The Kedushah of Homosexual Relationships

(bring readings to class for discussion)

 

 

AESTHETIC DIMENSION: Brazilian Religions

 

NOV   18        Orixás(ON)

Film #4: Bahia: Africa in the Americas

 

NOV   20        NO CLASS (Prof. Hayes will be out of town)

 

NOV   25         Umbanda” (ON)

 

NOV   27        NO CLASS (Thanksgiving Holiday)


 

 

UNIT III.         PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: A CASE STUDY

 

DEC    2          Salvation on Sand Mountain, Prologue and 1-63

Film #5: Joy Unspeakable

 

DEC    4          Salvation on Sand Mountain, 64-177 (skip Chapter 6; skip 137-144)

Extra Credit Option: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/04/0407_030407_snakehandlers.html

 

DEC    9          Salvation on Sand Mountain, 178-end

 

DEC    13        FINAL EXAMINATION

(EXAM WILL BE HELD FROM 10:30 A.M. – 12:30 P.M. in CAV 241)  (NOTE the difference of DAY and TIME)